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Mechanical Testing of Rubber

(Photo: Bareiss) Tensile testing is usually used to establish the following properties of rubber materials: Stress at a particular elongation, for example, 100% or 300%, expressed in MPa, is sometimes referred to as the rubber modulus Tensile strength in MPa, which is the strength at break The testing is usually done on dumbbell test pieces, which are punched out of 2 mm test sheets. The test is performed in a tensile testing machine using a speed of 500 mm/minute. To be able to establish the elongation and the stress at different elongation, an extensometer is also required. The extensometer can be mechanical with balanced clamps that measure the elongation or optical for example, a laser that measures two reflecting benchmarks on the test piece. Computer controlled universal tester. Photo: Tinius Olsen Compression tests to measure the rubbers stiffness, spring constant, or modulus, can be performed in advanced tensile testers, which can be used in both compression and tension. The normal technique is to deform the rubber by 25% and measure the force. It is common to do a mechanical condition by compressing the rubber three times and performing the measurement on the fourth compression. The result can be shown as a load/deformation curve, from which one can read off the force at, for example, 10 and 20% deformation.

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